采用TRMM(Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission)降水和云特征數據集，對南海2001年1月至2012年3月不同回波頂高對流系統的垂直結構、表面降雨率、數量時空分布的季節變化進行統計分析。結果表明：①淺對流、較深對流、深對流大于20 dBz的回波區分別分布在4～8 km、4～10 km、4～14 km之間；淺對流20 dBz回波頂高的頻率峰值為9 km；冬季，較深對流、深對流20 dBz回波頂高的頻率峰值分別為13 km、14.5 km，其余季節偏高分別為14.5 km、16 km。②較深對流和深對流是南海地區面積平均降雨率較強的2種主要的降水系統；夏秋兩季，較深對流的降雨率大于深對流；冬春兩季，深對流的降雨率大于較深對流。③較深對流、深對流出現頻次最少的季節為冬季，淺對流則為春季。④淺對流偏向于出現在12°N以南；深對流偏向于出現在12°N以北；較深對流在冬春季節集中在12°N以南，夏秋季節橫貫南海。⑤夏秋兩季在南海北部出現氣旋性輻合上升的差異中心，南海中南部的西南水汽輸送差異與700 hPa以下水汽的輻合差異，是較深對流在夏秋兩季比冬春兩季帶來更強降雨率的主要原因。
Utilizing the TRMM precipitation and cloud feature database, the seasonal differences of vertical structure, areamean rainfall rate and spatialtemporal distribution of precipitation for convective systems with different echo top heights over the South China Sea between January 2001 and March 2012 are analyzed. The results show that the reflectivity greater than 20 dBz of shallow, relatively deep and deep convections was respectively concentrated in 4-8 km, 4-10 km, 4-14 km, respectively. The frequency of 20 dBz echo top height peaked at 9 km for shallow convections. In winter, the frequency of 20 dBz echo top height peaked at 13.5 km and 14 km respectively for relatively deep and deep convections. However, in other seasons, their peaks were further higher arriving 14.5 km and 16 km. Relatively deep and deep convections were both two main precipitation systems with large rainfall rates in the South China Sea. Relatively deep convections have stronger rainfall rates in summer and autumn, while deep convections have stronger rainfall rates in winter and spring. Winter has the least number of relatively deep convections and deep convections, while spring has the least number of shallow convections. Shallow convections tend to occur in the south of 12°N and deep convections tends to appear in the north of 12°N. Relatively deep convections develop in the south of 12°N in winter and spring, but across the South China Sea in summer and autumn. For relatively deep convection events, there is a deviationcenter of cyclonic convergence in the northern South China Sea. The southwest water vapor transport difference in the central and southern South China Sea and the different convergence of water vapor below 700 hPa are the main reasons for stronger precipitation rate in summer and autumn than in winter and spring.