By using the daily precipitation data from 71 stations in Anhui province from 1961 to 2008, the precipitation amount and frequency of annual heavy rainfall are calculated for every station, and then the climatic characteristics of heavy rainfall over Anhui Province are analyzed by such methods as trend analysis, EOF, power spectrum analysis, wavelet analysis, MannKendall test, and so on. The results show that the distribution of heavy rainfall from 1971 to 2000, in accordance with the distribution of the frequency, shows a latitudinal pattern; the high amount and frequency of heavy rainfall appeared mostly around the end of June and the beginning of July. The heavy rainfall in most parts of Anhui had an increase trend, with the highvalue areas in the western Huaibei and the southern Jiangnan regions. The values of first mode of EOF were positive in all the province, with high values in the southwest of Anhui. The second mode of EOF indicates that the distributions of heavy rainfall in the South and North are contrary, greater in the North and less in the south. The third mode of EOF indicates that heavy rainfall was greater in both South and North, and less in the central part. There were periodic variations with the main periods being 9 to 10 years and the secondary period of about 3 years. The heavy rainfall in recent 50 years in Anhui experienced five cycles in the 9 to 10 year time scale. There was a mutation around 1978, and the average rainfall from 1979 to 2008 is 583 mm higher than the average from 1961 to 1978.